A victim's vulnerability may change during the course of an investigation due to health, intimidation or other reasons.
Vulnerable or intimidated witnesses can be assisted by 'Special Measures' to help them to give their evidence in the best way possible.
In addition, there may be norms of behaviour within a culture for dealing with criminal matters that do not involve the formal agencies of the criminal justice system.
Section 51 Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 creates two offences: The offences are triable either way.
Special Measures can include one or more of the following: Intermediaries work with victims and witnesses who may experience communication difficulties if required to give evidence in court; for example people with autism, hearing impairments or learning difficulties.
Intermediaries are professionals from a range of backgrounds such as speech and language therapy, psychology and social work who can help witnesses give evidence in court.
(A) read as follows: “in the case of murder (as defined in section 1111), the death penalty or imprisonment for life, and in the case of any other killing, the punishment provided in section 1112;”.
If the offense under this section occurs in connection with a trial of a criminal case, the maximum term of imprisonment which may be imposed for the offense shall be the higher of that otherwise provided by law or the maximum term that could have been imposed for any offense charged in such case. 110–177, § 205(1)(C), substituted “20 years” for “10 years”. 110–177, § 205(2), substituted “20 years” for “ten years” in concluding provisions. This occurs where family or friends of the victim or witness try to dissuade him or her from assisting in an investigation or an inquiry.There may be a variety of reasons for this including bringing shame on the victim's family.